FANDOM


February 1, 1964 Oasis Club, Manchester, ENG (with Gerry De Ville & City Kings & Pat Wayne & The Beachcombers) February 1, 1964 St. John's Church Hall, Manchester, ENG (with The Vikings) February 4, 1964 Oasis Club, Manchester, ENG (with The Valkeries) February 7, 1964 Oasis Club, Manchester, ENG (with Highland Laddies & The Corvettes) February 21, 1964 Cavern, Liverpool, ENG (supported by The Mark Four, The Notions & Bobby and the Bachelors) February 29, 1964 Oasis Club, Manchester, ENG (with Rhythm and Blues Inc. & The Stylos)

Package tour with Del Shannon, Wayne Fontana & The Mindbenders (Wayne was suffering from exhaustion and was replaced by The Zephyrs after the Salisbury show), Herman's Hermits, Just Four Men, Jerry Stevens, Dodie West (joined the show at Dundee), The Soul Savages featuring Paul Dean & The Dollies (who replaced The Shangri-Las, who pulled out at the last minute because Mary Weiss was ill)

February 27, 1965 City Hall, Sheffield, ENG February 28, 1965 Empire, Liverpool, ENG

March 1, 1965 Town Hall, Birmingham, ENG March 2, 1965 Gaumont, Wolverhampton, ENG March 3, 1965 Odeon, Manchester, ENG March 5, 1965 Capitol, Aberdeen, SCOT March 6, 1965 Caird Hall, Dundee, SCOT March 7, 1965 City Hall, Newcastle, ENG March 9, 1965 ABC, Northampton, ENG March 10, 1965 Odeon, Salisbury, ENG March 11, 1965 ABC, Dover, ENG March 12, 1965 Lewisham Odeon, London, ENG March 13, 1965 Odeon, Colchester, ENG March 14, 1965 Hammersmith Commodore, London, ENG March 16, 1965 ABC, Aldershot, ENG March 17, 1965 Gaumont, Taunton, ENG March 18, 1965 Gaumont, Worcester, ENG March 19, 1965 Odeon, Leeds, ENG March 20, 1965 Odeon, Bolton, ENG March 21, 1965 Gaumont, Hanley, ENG March 22, 1965 Odeon, Glasglow, SCOT

April 11, 1965 Empire Pool, Wembley, ENG ("New Musical Express Poll Winners Concert")

April 16, 1965 Manville High School, Manville, NJ

Dick Clark's Caravan of Stars 1965

April 30, 1965 War Memorial Auditorium, Johnstown, PA Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 1, 1965 Convention Hall, Philadelphia, PA Talent: Rolling Stones, Herman’s Hermits, Little Anthony, Bobby Vee, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway

Tour combines with R. Stones tour for this date and a billing dispute between the Stones and the Hermits result in a compromise where the Stones agree to take the stage long after the Caravan ends to create more of a separation in the minds of the audience. Peter Noone is a competitive sort and he has the Hermits do a long closing set that pushes the Stones up against Pennsylvania's curfew law, shortening their set.

May 2, 1965 Bluefield, WV Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 3, 1965 Gym, Pikeville High School, Pikeville, KY Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 4, 1965 Richmond, KY Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 5, 1965 Macomb, IL Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 6, 1965 Paduka, KY Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 7, 1965 Muncie, IN Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 8, 1965 Vincennes, IN Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 9, 1965 Ashland, KY Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 10, 1965 Clarksville, TN Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 11, 1965 Atlanta, GA Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 12, 1965 Charleston, SC Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 13, 1965 Jacksonville, FL Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 14, 1965 Mobile, AL Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 15, 1965 Columbus, GA Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 16, 1965 Panama City, FL Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 17, 1965 Macon, GA Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 18, 1965 Bell Auditorium, Augusta, GA Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 19, 1965 Columbia, SC Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 21, 1965 Victory Stadium, Roanoke, VA (show was cancelled due to rain – Herman’s Hermits did a makeup show in mid-June) Talent: Little Anthony, Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Freddy Cannon

May 21, 1965 Coliseum, Winston-Salem, NC Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 22, 1965 Civic Center, Charleston, WVA Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 23, 1965 Erie, PA Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 24, 1965 Pittsburgh, PA Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 25, 1965 Onondaga Co. War Memorial, Syracuse, NY Talent: Little Anthony, Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Freddie Cannon, Hondells, Brenda Holloway, Round Robin, Ikettes

May 26, 1965 Worcester, MA Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 27, 1965 Troy, NY Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 28, 1965 Sports Arena, Hershey, PA Talent: Little Anthony, Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Freddie Cannon, Hondells, Brenda Holloway, Round Robin, Ikettes

May 29, 1965 New Haven, CT Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

May 30, 1965 Bushnell Auditorium, Hartford, CT Talent: Little Anthony, Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Freddie Cannon, Hondells, Brenda Holloway, Round Robin, Ikettes

May 31, 1965 Memorial Auditorium, Utica, NY Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

June 1, 1965 Ottawa, ON Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Little Anthony, Freddie Cannon, Brenda Holloway, Hondells, Round Robin, Reparta & Delrons, Detergents, Ikettes, Billy Stewart

June 2, 1965 Forum, Montreal, QC Talent: Herman’s Hermits, Bobby Vee, Brenda Holloway, Freddie Cannon

July 14, 1965 Top Rank Ballroom, Doncaster, ENG (a dance for Doncaster Rovers soccer club

July 22, 1965 Kennedy Stadium, Bridgeport, CT (with Wayne Fontana & The Mindbenders)

1966

Australian Tour with Tom Jones (with The Squires)

January 21-22, 1966 Sydney Commemorative Auditorium Showground, Sydney, AUS (with Ray Columbus, Max Merritt and the Meteors, The Purple Hearts, The Wild Colonials, The Board) January 24, 1966 City Hall, Brisbane, AUS (with The Purple Hearts & The Feelgoods) January 27-29, 1966 The Plaias, Melbourne, AUS February 7, 1966 Centennial Hall, Adelaide, AUS (with Ray Columbus, Max Merritt and the Meteors, The Twilights & The Groop) February 8, 1966 Capitol Theatre, Perth, AUS (With Ray Columbus, Max Merritt and the Meteors & Johnny and the Strangers)


May 1, 1966 Empire Pool, Wembley, ENG ("New Musical Express Poll Winners Concert")


July 1, 1966 HIC Arena, Honolulu, HI (supported by The Animals)

July 2, 1966 Civic Auditorium, San Jose, CA (supported by The Animals)

July 3, 1966 Sports Arena, Los Angeles, CA (supported by The Animals)

July 6, 1966 Denver University Bear Stadium, Denver CO (supported by The Animals)

July 7, 1966 Coliseum, Lubbock, TX (supported by The Animals)

July 9, 1966 Lagoon Terrace Ballroom, Salt Lake City, UT (supported by The Animals)

July 10, 1966 Auditorium Convention Hall, Minneapolis, MN (afternoon show, supported by The Animals)

July 10, 1966 Memorial Hall, Kansas City, KS (Evening show, supported by The Animals)

July 12, 1966 Arena, Sioux Falls, SD (afternoon show, supported by The Animals)

July 12, 1966 Veterans Memorial Auditorium, Des Moines, IA (Evening show, supported by The Animals)

July 13, 1966 Pershing Auditorium, Lincoln, NE (supported by The Animals)

July 14, 1966 Assembly Center, Tulsa, OK (supported by The Animals)

July 15, 1966 War Memorial Stadium, Little Rock, AR (supported by The Animals)

July 16, 1966 Dallas, TX (supported by The Animals)

July 17, 1966 Sam Houston Coliseum, Houston, TX (supported by The Animals)

July 18, 1966 Memorial Coliseum, Corpus Christi, TX (supported by The Animals)

July 19, 1966 Mississippi Coliseum, Jackson, MS (supported by The Animals)

July 20, 1966 Municipal Auditorium, Atlanta, GA (supported by The Animals)

July 21, 1966 Mid-South Coliseum, Memphis, TN (supported by The Animals)

July 22, 1966 State Coliseum, Montgomery, AL (supported by The Animals)

July 23, 1966 Municipal Auditorium, Birmingham, AL (supported by The Animals)

July 24, 1966 City Park Stadium, New Orleans, LA (supported by The Animals)

July 25, 1966 Syria Mosque, Richmond, VA (supported by The Animals)

July 26, 1966 Municipal Auditorium, Winston-Salem, NC (supported by The Animals)

July 27, 1966 Municipal Auditorium, Canton, OH (supported by The Animals)

July 28, 1966 Olympia Stadium, Detroit, MI (supported by The Animals)

July 29, 1966 Forum, Montreal, QC (supported by The Animals)

July 30, 1966 Civic Center, Baltimore, MD (supported by The Animals)

July 31, 1966 International Amphitheatre, Chicago, IL (afternoon show, supported by The Animals)

July 31, 1966 Milwaukee Arena, Milwaukee, WI (evening show, supported by The Animals)

August 1-3, 1966 Steel Pier, Atlantic City, NJ

August 4, 1966 Memorial Coliseum, Fort Wayne, IN (supported by The Animals)

August 5, 1966 Boston Arena, Boston, MA (supported by The Animals)

August 6, 1966 Maple Leaf Stadium, Toronto, ON (supported by The Animals)

August 7, 1966 Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, PA (supported by The Animals)

August 8, 1966 Rhode Island Auditorium, Providence, RI (supported by The Animals)

October 22, 1966 Hollywood Playhouse, Hollywood, CA (US TV "Hollywood Palace" with Phyllis Diller, Bob Newhart, Tony Martin, Del Morals, Lada Edmund Jr., Kirk Kirkham, Palace Duo & Mitchell Ayers and the Hollywood Palace Orchestra)

August 9, 1967 Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto, ON (supported by The Who)

August 12, 1967 Convention Hall, Asbury Park, NJ (2 shows 8.00 & 10.15, supported by The Who & The Blue Magoos)

September 5, 1971 White Rock Pavilion, Hastings, ENG

Peter Noone Solo

August 20, 1972 White Rock Pavilion, Hastings, ENG

In 1973 a British Invasion tour was promoted by Richard Nader. New York promoter Ron Delsener had the idea and contacted agent Danny Betesh about securing the talent. Betesh had handled a number of acts back in the day, including Freddie and the Dreamers who he still handled. Unfortunately Freddie had a summer season booked in Great Yarmouth so he was unavailable. Dave Clark turned down an offer but Peter Noone was interested and pretty soon a package was put together. It was at that point that Delsener had to bow out. He was dealing with the summer-long Shaeffer Music Festival in Central Park and had no time to devote to the tour. Oldies producer Richard Nader stepped into the breach and promoted the tour.

Peter Noone reunited with the Hermits for this tour. In addition to Herman’s Hermits, the tour included Billy J. Kramer and the Dakotas, Gerry and the Pacemakers, The Searchers & Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders. Billed as “The British Are Coming Again” the 21-date nationwide tour of the U.S. and Canada began on the East Coast and worked its way to the West before working their way back to the Midwest.

June 26, 1973 Saratoga Performing Arts Center, Saratoga Springs, NY

June 27, 1973 Madison Square Garden, New York City, NY

June 28, 1973 Maple Leaf Garden, Toronto, ON

June 29, 1973 Civic Center, Springfield, MA

June 30, 1973 Coliseum, Providence, RI

July 1, 1973 Cape Cod Coliseum, South Yarmouth, MA

July 3, 1973 Steel Pier, Atlantic City, NJ

July 6, 1973 Merriweather Post Pavilion, Columbia, MD

July 7, 1973 Yale Bowl, New Haven, CT

July 9, 1973 Pine Knob Pavilion, MI

July 10, 1973 Municipal Auditorium, Kansas City, KS

July 11, 1973 Minneapolis, MN

July 12, 1973 Sioux Falls Coliseum, Sioux Falls, IA

July 13, 1973 Forum, Inglewood, CA (Cancelled due to low ticket sales)

July 15, 1973 Cow Palace, San Francisco, CA (Cancelled due to low ticket sales)

In addition to the tour, Nader arranged a booking with TV producer Burt Sugarman to do a British themed Midnight Special. The filming took place on July 15th after the LA and San Francisco shows were cancelled and included all of the acts on the tour in addition to the Hollies and the Bee Gees. It aired on August 10, 1973.

July 16, 1973 Winnipeg Arena, Winnipeg, MB

July 17, 1973 Civic Center, Bismark, ND

July 18, 1973 Blossom Music Center, Cuyahoga Falls, OH

July 19, 1973 Summerfest, Milwaukee, WI

July 20, 1973 Musicpark, Columbus, OH

July 21, 1973 Fairgrounds, Cedar Rapids, IA

July 22, 1973 St. Louis, MO

The tour was apparently extended by an additional date in the Hamptons at an unidentified resort.


Billed as the “20th Anniversary of British Rock,” this tour featured Gerry Marsden, Billy J. Kramer, Herman’s Hermits, the Troggs, and Badfinger featuring Joey Molland. This version of Herman’s Hermits contained only Lek Leckenby and Barry Witwam of the original band along with Garth Elliott and Paul Farnell.

July 4, 1984 Boston, MA

August 1, 1984 Baltimore, MD (cancelled)

August 2, 1984 Hilton Hotel Ballroom, Washington, DC

August 4, 1984 Rio Theatre, Valley Stream, NY

August 5, 1984 Lupos Heartbreak Hotel, Providence, RI

August 7, 1984 Club Casino, Hampton Beach, NH

August 8, 1984 Birch Hill Swim Club, Old Bridge, NJ (TV crews from all three major networks plus MTV are at the show to film and interview the bands)

August 10, 1984 Lanierland Music Park, Cummings, GA

August 11, 1984 Aqua Theater, Greensboro, NC

August 14, 1984 Auditorium, West Palm Beach, FL

August ??, 1984 Fort Lauderdale, FL

August 16, 1984 London Victory Club, Tampa, FL

August 18, 1984 Celebrity’s, Lafayette, LA

August 21, 1984 Civic Center, Peoria, IL

August 23, 1984 Park West, Chicago, IL

August 25, 1984 Veteran’s Memorial Hall, Columbus, OH

August 26, 1984 Downtown Festival Tent, Rochester, NY

August 29, 1984 Memorial Gardens, Sault Ste. Marie, ON

August 30, 1984 Fort William Gardens, Thunder Bay, ON

September 3, 1984 Music Tower, Playland, Rye, NY

September 4, 1984 Bottom Line, New York City, NY



Peter Noone (vocals); Derek "Lek" Leckenby (lead guitar); Keith Hopwood (rhythm guitar); Karl Green (bass); Barry "Bean" Whitman (drums)

1963

Noone who sold programs as a schoolboy at Manchester United Soccer matches, has studied at the Manchester School of Music and Drama and has appeared in the ITV soap "Coronation Street", before being offered a part in a film starring Judy Garland in 1961, an opportunity scotched, however, by his parent. Now in a group with Green and Hopwood. Noone meets Leckenby who is playing in the Wailers with Whitman in the Cavern, Manchester. They Team up as the Heartbeats, with Noone using the name Peter Novak, and playing at youth clubs, and teen dance hall, eventually signing with managers Harvey Lisberg and Charlie Silverman. The group's name is changed after Green notes a likeness between Noone and the character Sherman in the TV cartoon "The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show". "Sherman" becomes "Herman" and the band's name develops to Herman & His Hermits, later shortened to Herman's Hermits.

1964 Lisberg and Silverman send producer Mickie Most a plane ticket and book him into Manchester's Midland Hotel, before taking him to see the group on stage in Bolton, Lancs. Most sees a facial likeness between Noone and a young John F. Kennedy and decides that the singer's "little -boy-lost" look would make him the ideal frontman for a pop act aimed as much at mums and dads as teenagers.


1965

Jan- On its first US visit, the group makes a cameo appearance in the teen movie"When Boys Meet The Girls", starring Connie Francis and Harve Presnell.



June [6] The group appears on CBS-TV's "The Ed Sullivan Show" and also performs on the network's "It's What's Happening Baby" on the 28th


July [22] A Dick Clark package tour begins in the US, set to end on August 8th. (After a Bridgeport, CT gig, a local police chief states "I can assure any organization planning to sponsor entertainment of this type in the future that no permit will be issued by the police department", citing unruly behavior by teenagers.)

August [7] On holiday in Hawaii, Noone meets, and "interviews" for the New Musical Express, Elvis Presley, who is working on location for the film "Paradise, Hawaiian Style".

October [25] Herman hosts NBC-TV's "Hullabaloo".

November [3] The begins an 18-date, twice-nightly UK tour, with Bill Fury, Wayne Fontana, the Fortunes and others at the Gaumont Cinema, Wolverhampton, warks., set to climax on the 22nd at the Odeon Cinema, Manchester.


1966


April [7] The Band begins a 12-date, twice-nightly UK tour, with Dave Berry, the MindBenders, David and Jonathan, and Pinkerton's Assorted Colours, at the ABC Cinema, Dover, Kent, ending on the 20th at the ABC Cinema, Edinburgh, Scotland.


June [25] The group guests on the last edition of ITV's "Thank Your Lucky Stars".

July [1] They begin another US tour, with the Animals, Jerry Lee Lewis and Lou Christie, in Honolulu, HI set to end on August 10th.


1967


April [25] The group is featured in CBS-TV's Leonard Berstein-hosted "Inside Pop--The Revolution".

July [13] The band opens a North American tour with the Who, on their first US tour, as its support act, and the Blue Magoos in Calgary, ab, Canada, set to end September 9th in Honolulu.

September [24] The group guests on CBS-TV's "The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour".


1968


February [10] The band begins a ten-date, twice-nightly UK-tour, with Amen Corner, Dave Berry, the Paper Dolls, John Rowles and the Echoes, at the Town Hall, Birmingham, W. Midlands, ending on the 19th at Nottingham's Theatre Royal.


December [28] The group guests on BBC1-TV's "Val Doonican Show".

1969

May [4] The ban appears on ITV's "This Is Tom Jones".

1970

November [9] The group participates in the Royal Variety Performance in London.


1980

Living in Los Angeles, Noone forms the short-lived Tremblers in 1980, with Gregg Inhofer and Gee Conner on guitars, Mark Browne on bass and Robert Williams on drums, and records the album Twice Nightly. He will go on to enjoy his biggest stage success in the starring role (as Frederic) of the 1983 London version of Gilbert and Sullivan's "The Pirates Of Penzance", having taken over the part from Rex Smith on Broadway in 1982. 1994

June [4] While both the Hermits, lining up as Leckenby, Whitman, Geoff Foote and Rod Gerrard, and Noone have continued to perform separately on the nostalgia circuit, Noone, now living in Montecito, CA, is still highly visible in the '90s as an ever-youthful VJ on the US cable TV channel VH-1 and as interviewer for the station's music magazine, "My Generation". Leckenby now dies of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Manchester, after playing his final gig with Herman's Hermits in Moses Lake, WA on May 29th.

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.